Cartesian mapping: storing a grid of dots and features located at that position.
Efficient cartesian mapping: storing only points which contain landmarks of interest.
Relation-based mapping: storing the relative position of a feature relative to the position of another anchor.
Head-direction cells: fire when the head is pointed at a given orientation.
Object-vector cells: fires when at distance and direction from some object of concern. Orientation is read from the head direction cells and environment cues.
Displacement cells: find positions between grid cells.
Grid cells for fixed resolutions and short repeating distances; vector cells for encoding long-range distances.